What are Quantum, Qubits, Quarks .. lets dive in

A quark (/kwɔːrk, kwɑːrk/) is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. wikipedia

Quarks is what I know to be the fundamental practical observed, I was intrigued to know if it has anything to do with Quantum computers of today.

Quarks as per Keith Cooper article on space.com

To fit into quantum physics theory, the behavior of quarks is governed by a model called quantum chromodynamics, or QCD for short. The “chromo” in the name refers to “color” — not as in red, green or blue, but the name given to a particular quantum number that quarks possess

Size of a Quark

While the size of protons and neutrons is of the order of a Fermi (10−15 m), the size of quarks is ~10−18 m. It is deemed that quarks are composed of smaller particles – preons. 

image 13

Quantum computers take on quarks

The strong nuclear force, which binds atomic nuclei together, has been a subject of extensive study, leading to significant insights into the nature of matter. However, understanding certain aspects, such as the composition of matter in the early universe, remains challenging due to the limitations of computer simulations on classical machines.

To overcome these limitations, some physicists are exploring the use of quantum computers. A team from the University of Waterloo and York University in Canada has made progress in this area by simulating matter particle interactions using variational algorithms, a type of quantum algorithm. This advancement could potentially enable the study of nuclear behavior following the Big Bang and within astrophysical objects like neutron stars, which are currently beyond the reach of classical computers.

Composite particles: Artistic rendering of a meson (left) and baryon (right). The meson comprises a quark (represented by a filled circle), antiquark (represented by a striped circle), and a connecting gluon. The baryon consists of three quarks and three gluons. (Courtesy: Amara McCune and Jacob Marks)
Composite particles: Artistic rendering of a meson (left) and baryon (right). The meson comprises a quark (represented by a filled circle), antiquark (represented by a striped circle), and a connecting gluon. The baryon consists of three quarks and three gluons. (Courtesy: Amara McCune and Jacob Marks)

Simulating fundamental forces

In quantum electrodynamics (QED), the theory of electromagnetic interactions, the photon, which carries the electromagnetic force, does not interact with itself. This is known as an Abelian gauge theory. However, in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong force, the force-carrying particles, gluons, do interact with each other. This interaction allows for the formation of a variety of composite particles, including baryons and mesons.

Making predictions in QCD is crucial for understanding the universe, but it’s challenging due to the nature of gluon interaction and the property known as confinement. This has led physicists to simulate quarks and gluons on a computer, using a method known as lattice QCD. However, this approach also has limitations, including the discretization of space and time, and the exponential increase in prediction time with the number of particles.

Quantum computers, with their ability to exist in a superposition of multiple states, may provide a solution. They could potentially extend lattice QCD to previously unapproachable regimes, as they are not subject to the exponential scaling that limits classical computers.

path toward useful quantum computing

The paper signifies a crucial step towards achieving quantum advantage, which involves demonstrating that quantum computers can outperform classical ones and identifying problems where this speedup is beneficial. The research shows a quantum algorithm surpassing classical methods, but it’s expected that classical computing will develop verification methods, enhancing computing overall.

The quantum simulations were found to be more accurate than classical simulation methods, suggesting quantum computers could serve as verification tools for classical algorithms. The team plans to upgrade their systems to focus on processors with 127 qubits or more, enabling users to explore applications that outperform current classical methods.

IBM Quantum System One installations at various institutions will soon have 127-qubit IBM Quantum Eagle processors, ushering in the era of utility. As quantum computing begins providing utility, it opens up exploration to a new user set—those using high-performance computing to solve complex problems. The team is forming working groups to research use cases for near-term quantum processors in domains like healthcare, life sciences, and machine learning.

The team encourages exploration of error-mitigated circuits incorporating 127 qubits or more as they prepare to bring processors capable of returning accurate expectation values for 100-qubit-by-100 gate-depth circuits in less than a day’s runtime by the end of 2024.

What are quantum chips made out of?

quantum chips, the building blocks of quantum computers, are primarily composed of superconducting materials, with aluminum and niobium being a commonly used element. These chips also incorporate insulating materials to shield qubits from external disturbances. Google’s qubits are made of aluminum; IBM uses a mix of aluminum and niobium, the two most often used materials for this qubit type. A superconducting qubit is typically a tiny loop or line of metal that behaves like an atom—an inherently quantum object. Quantum computers cannot use conventional memory and data storage — they must instead use quantum memory. Quantum memory is more capable than conventional memory but is also fragile and error-prone. Quantum memory is based on quantum bits, or qubits


For my day of research, on finding relationship between QBITS and QUARKS, I would say, there is no direct relation, quantum computers are called so because of the probabilistic nature of QUBITS design similar to quantum mechanics.

Tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed.